Citation Basics

Below are citation examples for the most commonly cited kinds of resources using APA and MLA rules. Each style also has requirements for in-text reference to the cited source. Our list of databases will help create correct MLA citations. Chicago (Turabian) has two different styles, Notes-Bibliography and Author-Date.

Our Recommended Web Sites: Citing Sources page links to web sites with more detailed citation information, as well as other citation styles.

ALWAYS check with your instructor if you have questions about citation or other format issues.

APA Style

MLA Style


Book, multiple authors

Gaines, L. K., & Miller, R. L. (2003). Criminal justice in action.Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

See Rule 7.02, Example 18 on page 203 (6th ed.)

Book, multiple authors

Gaines, Larry K., and Roger LeRoy Miller. Criminal Justice in Action. Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2003.

See pages 21-22, 8th ed.


Reference book article

Goode, E. (2002). Drug legalization. In D. Levinson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of crime and punishment (Vol. 2, pp. 559-65). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

See Rule 7.02 on pages 202-203 (6th ed.)

Reference book article

Goode, Erich. "Drug Legalization." Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment, Edited by David Levinson, vol. 2, Sage Publications, 2002.

See pages 27, 35, 38, 8th ed.


Newspaper article, no byline/author

A counselor's resounding cry, even from her hospital bed: Go directly to college. (2005, December 28). The New York Times, p. B10.

See rule 7.01, Examples 9 and 10 on page 200 (6th ed.) If author is known, use the author, date, article title sequence.

Newspaper article, no byline/author

"A Counselor's Resounding Cry, Even From Her Hospital Bed: Go Directly to College." New York Times, 28 Dec. 2005, late ed., p. B10.

See pages 27-28, 8th ed. If author is known, use the author, article title, publication title, date sequence.


Magazine article

Kalb, C. (2006, March 27). The therapist as scientist. Newsweek, 147(13), 50-51.

See Rule 7.01, Example 7 on page 200 (6th ed.)

Magazine article

Kalb, Claudia. "The Therapist as Scientist." Newsweek, 27 Mar. 2006, pp. 50-51.

See pages 27-28, 8th ed.


Journal article, journal paginated by issue

Fodor, J. (2006). How the mind works: What we still don't know. Daedalus, 135(3), 86-94.

See Rule 7.01, Example 3 on page 199 (6th ed.)

Journal article, journal paginated by issue

Fodor, Jerry. "How the Mind Works: What We Still Don't Know." Daedalus, vol. 135, no. 3, 2006, pp. 86-94.

See pages 27-28, 8th ed.


Journal article, issues paginated continuously

Côté, S., & Bouchard, S. (2009). Cognitive mechanisms underlying virtual reality exposure. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12, 121-129. doi:10.1089/cpb.2008.0008

See Rule 7.01, Example 1 on page 198 (6th ed.)

Journal article, issues paginated continuously

Côté, Sophie, and Stephan Bouchard. "Cognitive Mechanisms Underlying Virtual Reality Exposure." CyberPsychology & Behavior, vol. 12, no. 2, 2009, pp. 121-29. Business Source Complete, doi:10.1089/cpb.2008.0008. Accessed 25 Apr. 2012.

See pages 31-32, 53, 8th ed.


Journal article, retrieved from a database.

Ishitani, T. T. (2006). Studying attrition and degree completion behavior among first-generation college students in the United States. The Journal of Higher Education, 77, 861-865. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.

APA style modification as preferred by most WTAMU faculty. For exact information, see Rule 7.01, Example 3 on page 199. Use doi if available.

Journal article, retrieved from a database.

Ishitani, Terry T. "Studying Attrition and Degree Completion Behavior Among First-Generation College Students in the United States." Journal of Higher Education, vol. 77, no. 5, 2006, pp. 861-85. Academic Search Complete. Accessed 25 Apr. 2006.

See pages 31-32, 53, 8th ed.


Website

Bank, J., & Jackson, B. (2006, April 4). Can you prevent global warming? Retrieved from http://www.factcheck.org/
society/can_you_prevent_global_warming.html

See Rule 7.03, Examples 32-34 on page 206 (6th ed.) Include as much information as possible.

Website

Bank, Justin, and Brooks Jackson. "Can You Prevent Global Warming?" FactCheck.org, Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania, 4 Apr. 2006, http://www.factcheck.org/society/can_you_prevent_global_warming.html. Accessed 22 Aug. 2009.

See Rule 5.6.2 on page 184.


Government Document: Report or Informative document

United Nations. (1991). Consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. New York, NY: Taylor.

See Rule 7.03, Example 31 on page 205 (6th ed.)

Government Document: Report or Informative document

United Nations. Consequences of Rapid Population Growth in Developing Countries. Taylor and Francis, 1991.

See page 25, 8th ed.


Government Hearing, etc

Hearings on the "Equal Rights" Amendment: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments of the Committee on the Judiciary, 91st Cong. 1 (1970).

See Appendix 7.1 Example 13 on page 221. Other governmental forms can vary widely. See the full appendix on pages 216-224 (6th ed.)

Government Hearing, etc

United States, Senate, Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments of the Committee on the Judiciary. Hearings on the "Equal Rights" Amendment. Government Printing Office, 1907 91st Congress, 2nd session, Senate Resolution 61.

See page 105, 8th ed.


Case law, legal documents

Specific examples provides in Appendix 7.1, p. 216-221 (6th ed.) with reference to The bluebook for additional detail.

Case law, legal documents

Use The Bluebook: A Uniform Style of Citation, Print.
Call number KF245 .B58 (Ref).

See Rule 5.7.14 on pages 205-6.

See also: Texas Rules of Form, Print/
Call number: Z UA345.5 T312RUF 2003 - Texas Documents Shelves


Basic format, book.

Authors. (Year of publication). Title of book, sentence style capitalization. Place of publication: Name of publisher.

Rule 7.02 on page 202 (6th ed.)

Basic format, book.

Authors. Title of Book, Headline Style Capitalization. Name of publisher, year of publication.

See page 21, 8th ed.


Basic format, periodical (newspaper, magazine, or journal)

Authors. (Date of Publication). Title of article, sentence style capitalization. Title of Publication, Headline Style Capitalization, volume number(issue number if not continuously paginated), inclusive page numbers. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Note: Do not give the volume number of a newspaper even if it is listed.

Rule 7.01 on page 198 (6th ed.)

Basic format, periodical (newspaper, magazine, or journal)

Authors. "Title of Article, Headline Style Capitalization." Title of Publication, Headline Style Capitalization, volume number, issue number, year, pp. inclusive page numbers. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Note: All journals should include the issue number, regardless of pagination. Do not give the volume and issue numbers of a magazine or newspaper even if they are listed.


Paper Format

The OWL at Purdue - Sample APA Paper (6th edition)

Paper Format

The OWL at Purdue -sample MLA Paper 8th ed. PDF format.


Source for APA Rules

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). (2010). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association

Source for MLA Rules

Modern Language Association of America. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 8th ed., The Modern Language Association of America, 2016.