Volume 7 (2012), Number 3
Table of Contents
Educating the Migrant Child: Professional Development for Teachers of Young Children of Seasonal Farm Workers
Author Smita Mathur Ph.D.
University of South Florida Polytechnic
Gowri Parameswaran Ph.D.
State University of New York at New Paltz
Abstract This article argues that most interventions to promote academic success for migrant children show limited and short term gains typically they focus on one part of the child's environment. A focus of the child's ecological framework is likely to yield lasting and positive outcomes for the migrant child, family, and teacher's of migrant children. Thus, any educational intervention must include not only the child's micro environment but also strengthen the meso and macro environments surrounding the migrant families. This article uses Bronfenbrenner's ecological framework to describe strengths and challenges within the migrant communities. Based on an understanding of these strengths and challenges it suggests best practices for preschool teachers of migrant children.
Keywords: Migrant Education, Seasonal farm workers, professional development
Critical Multiculturalism in Action: Gay Teachers’ Perceptions of Conflicting and Concurrent Realities in their Classrooms
J.B. Mayo, Jr.
University of Minnesota
Abstract In this article, the author acknowledges the daily challenges faced by gay male teachers in a large southern state, particularly those that expose their students’ homophobic bias and willingness to openly challenge the teacher’s authority based on the teacher’s perceived sexual orientation. The central focus, however, is the teachers’ perceived advantages of being gay, despite the many incidents of harassment and regardless of the degree to which their sexual orientation is known to students and colleagues. In-depth interviews reveal participants’ perceived special talents in the classroom setting, including a heightened sensitivity to gender issues, a greater understanding of students labeled as “other,” and more generalized empathy toward all students. Further, this article highlights gay teachers’ employment of critical multiculturalism and reveals implications for what this means for gay teachers, more broadly, and their students in the secondary classroom.
Keywords: gay teachers, critical multiculturalism, homophobia, teacher identity
A Longitudinal, Mixed Method Study of High-Growth Undergraduate Students’ Descriptions of their Intercultural Sensitivity Development
Kelly Carter Merrill
University of Hawaii
Mary K. Desler
Abstract Undergraduates who were determined to have experienced significant intercultural sensitivity development over the course of 4 years in college were asked to describe the changes that they experienced. Their descriptions were arranged into six themes: awareness of stereotypes, thinking, open (closed)-mindedness, intrapersonal awareness, social comfort, and interpersonal skills. These themes reflect cognitive, intrapersonal, and interpersonal domains of development and the interconnectivity of these domains, thus empirically supporting several education and communication scholars’ conceptualizations of intercultural development.
“Stitching Stories: Images of Remarkable Quilters and Their Quilt Treasures in Multicultural Children’s Literature.”
Dr. Suzanne S. Monroe
West Texas A&M University
Exploration of multicultural children’s literature featuring contemporary and historical images of quilters and their creations. Recognition of quilting as a form of material culture richly embedded with personal, family and community stories. These selections represent an innovative framework for integrating content areas and support the extensive connection between generations, geographic locals and diverse cultural communities.
Keywords: material culture, quilts, quilters, family and community stories.
College Athletics and Academic Achievement for NCAA Division I, Female, African American Student Athletes
Authors Dr. Belvia D. Moody.
Tarrant County College, Trinity River Campus
Many colleges and universities with intercollegiate athletics programs encounter a constant challenge to sustain the balance between academic and athletic success for student athletes. In comparison to white student athletes, both female and male, African American student athletes score lower on standardized tests, have fewer academic opportunities, achieve lower retention rates and terminate their intercollegiate athletic career before graduation (Allen, 1988; McArdle & Hamagami, 1994; Sellers, 2000: Stratta, 1995). In this article, the author examines the common pressures student athletes faced, as a result, of gender and race. This article addresses the psychosocial nature of athletic competition and academic achievement for female, African American student athletes. The author will summarize conclusions and render solutions to assist athletic administrators and academic personnel in increasing academic success among African American student athletes.
Keywords: academic motivation, African American student athletes, female student athletes, multicultural education, diversity, race and gender equity.
The Stereotyping of American Indians: Where Do We Currently Stand at the University Level?
Jesse J. Morris, PhD., LPC, MAC, NBCC
Central Maine Community College
Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the stereotyping of American Indians. University students were asked to identify their initial thoughts about Native Americans and where did they learn this? Two researchers, one being American Indian and one being Non-Indian gathered information. Statistically significant differences depending on who administered questions were discovered.
Meeting the Needs for Today’s Multicultural Classroom: A Review of Literature
M. Elisabeth Nichols
Department of English and ESOL Education
The University of South Alabama
Erwei Dong, Ph.D.
Department of Health, Physical Education and Leisure Studies
University of South Alabama
While in college, pre-service teachers are taught a variety of techniques, skills, and strategies to use in their future classrooms. But even with all these things, they are still leaving their teacher education courses unprepared to teach in today’s classroom. The majority of them are leaving their respective colleges, after only having one or two basic classes on teaching in a multicultural setting since that is the minimum requirement for receiving most education diplomas. They are not prepared for coming in contact with different cultures than the sheltered one many of them have lived in. They are not prepared for the different needs possessed by today’s multicultural student population. In this paper, we discuss not just the problems that arise due to this issue. We also discuss ways to remedy these problems, starting with pre-service teacher education programs and ending with these future teachers themselves. Because after all, a teacher has no excuse for not teaching to the best of his or her ability, other than the lack of a desire to do so.
Keywords: Pre-service teachers, classroom Using Multicultural Children’s Literature about Criminal Justice Issues: Fostering Aesthetic Reading Responses
Author Mary Ellen Oslick
University of Central Arkansas
Abstract This article documents research examining the responses Black boys had regarding children’s literature that addresses criminal justice issues. Specifically, I asked the research question: How do Black boys respond to multicultural children’s literature addressing criminal justice issues? To better understand their responses, I asked two other questions to guide my inquiry: a) What do Black boys’ responses say about their personal connections to the stories? and b) What do Black boys’ responses say about their perceptions of society, specifically their understandings of how justice works in their lives and their communities? Combining social issues children’s literature and critical literacy practices with the experiences of these African American boys produced important conversations. Their responses were interpreted through the method of critical discourse analysis. This stance illuminated and interrogated the ways that power and knowledge were reproduced, consumed, and transformed through the dynamic interplay of micro and macro interactions and human agency.
Keywords: Critical Discourse Analysis, multicultural children’s literature, reader response theory
Navigating Internship in Inclusive Settings: Promising Practices
Authors Karen B. Patterson, Madalina Tanase, Wanda Lastrapes and Meiko Negishi
University of North Florida
The authors present practical considerations for student teachers interning in special education or inclusive settings. First, the attrition rate of teachers and the need for providing novice teachers support are discussed. Next, the performance areas likely to be assessed and evaluated during the internship process are presented. These are: (a) supervision, (b) classroom management, (c) behavior management, (d) instructional strategies and planning lessons for diverse learners, and (e) assessing, documenting, and communicating student process. Tips for student teachers to effectively complete their
internship are discussed in each phase.
Keywords: student teaching, internship, classroom management, inclusion, diversity, teacher preparation, special education
Preparing Secondary Mathematics Teachers for California: Attitudes and Beliefs Towards Issues of Diversity Before and After a 10-Week Multicultural Education Component
Authors Dr. Christopher M. Pavone
California State University, Chico
Abstract This study examined the impact a 10-week multicultural education course had on the attitudes and beliefs of a group of undergraduate preservice secondary mathematics teachers. Survey data (pre/post) were used to examine changes in attitudes and beliefs towards issues of diversity, and how such changes might depend on participants’ race, social class, and/or previous experience with multicultural content. It was shown that participants’ general comfort and familiarity with multicultural content, and their professional beliefs about diversity changed significantly, but their personal beliefs did not. Participants from lower social class backgrounds, or having had previous exposure to multicultural content exhibited significantly greater increases in comfort and familiarity with multicultural content. Ethnographic also data indicated that the catalyst for change was the participants’ concurrent teaching placements and personal stories shared by underrepresented participants during class discussions.
Multicultural Teacher Training – As Seen by Students of Minority Cultures
Authors Dr. Nirit Raichel
Kinneret College (Bar Ilan University), Israel
This study investigates the features of practice teaching and learning in a "professional development school" by students enrolled in two multicultural colleges representing various minority groups in Israel: religious Jews, Muslim Arabs, Druze and Bedouins. The objectives of the study are to reflect positions and feelings of minority culture students regarding their experiences and their education at the college; to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of teaching at a mainstream public school as experienced by them; to discuss proposals made by minority students to prepare students from various cultures to teach; and to present a method which combines the use of written materials and life stories as a research tool. Findings indicate that an in-depth discussion would enhance multicultural education at the college, while, at the same time, careful planning will lead to both to shared and separate cultural activities on campus.
Keywords: Multicultural, Minority: Jews, Muslims, Druze, Bedouins, Education, PDS
The Challenges of Nurturing Graduate Education Majors’ Ethic of Relational Care Vital to Culturally Responsive Teaching
Authors Janet C. Richards, Ph. D.
Professor, Department of Childhood Education and Literacy Studies
College of Education
University of South Florida
Noddings' theory of the ethic of care (1984) focuses on relationships important to teaching. However, “current teacher education programs… often fail to address the ethic of care” (Owens, & Ennis, 2005, p. 392). In this inquiry I explored the merits of an intervention I designed to nurture graduate education majors’ relational care and reflective attitudes toward cultural diversity. Education majors who were experienced teachers enacted caring dispositions while those with little or no teaching experience disregarded, or misconstrued the goals of the intervention. Many of the education majors revealed their anxieties about conversing with strangers and with only one exception, the education majors conversed with individuals whose race and ethnicity were similar to their own.
Perceiving Possibility in Teaching for Social Justice: Finding Hope without Illusion
Authors Ruchi Agarwal-Rangnath, Ed.D.
San Francisco State University
Abstract Beginning teachers may leave their social justice-oriented teacher education programs confident in their abilities to “change the world;” yet, rethink, negotiate, and/or set aside their once acknowledged commitment to social justice when faced with pressures related to the current context of accountability and standardization. This study draws from four case studies of beginning urban elementary teachers to illustrate a contextualized account of the struggles and challenges teachers face in enacting their conception of social justice into practice.